How would you overload a class constructor in TypeScript?

Technology CommunityCategory: TypeScriptHow would you overload a class constructor in TypeScript?
VietMX Staff asked 1 year ago

TypeScript allows you to declare overloads but you can only have one implementation and that implementation must have a signature that is compatible with all overloads. Some techniques for constructor overloading are:

  • with an optional parameter as in
class Box {
    public x: number;
    public y: number;
    public height: number;
    public width: number;

    constructor();
    constructor(obj: IBox); 
    constructor(obj?: any) {    
        this.x = obj && obj.x || 0
        this.y = obj && obj.y || 0
        this.height = obj && obj.height || 0
        this.width = obj && obj.width || 0;
    }   
}
  • default parameters
class Box {
    public x: number;
    public y: number;
    public height: number;
    public width: number;

    constructor(obj : IBox = {x:0,y:0, height:0, width:0}) {    
        this.x = obj.x;
        this.y = obj.y;
        this.height = obj.height;
        this.width = obj.width;
    }   
}
  • additional overloads as static factory methods
class Person {
    static fromData(data: PersonData) {
        let { first, last, birthday, gender = 'M' } = data 
        return new this(
            `${last}, ${first}`,
            calculateAge(birthday),
            gender
        )
    }

    constructor(
        public fullName: string,
        public age: number,
        public gender: 'M' | 'F'
    ) {}
}

interface PersonData {
    first: string
    last: string
    birthday: string
    gender?: 'M' | 'F'
}


let personA = new Person('Doe, John', 31, 'M')
let personB = Person.fromData({
    first: 'John',
    last: 'Doe',
    birthday: '10-09-1986'
})
  • using union types
class foo {
    private _name: any;
    constructor(name: string | number) {
        this._name = name;
    }
}
var f1 = new foo("bar");
var f2 = new foo(1);