An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical functions. C language is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators −

- Arithmetic Operators
- Relational Operators
- Logical Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Misc Operators

We will, in this chapter, look into the way each operator works.

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## Arithmetic Operators

The following table shows all the arithmetic operators supported by the C language. Assume variable **A** holds 10 and variable **B** holds 20 then.

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

+ | Adds two operands. | A + B = 30 |

− | Subtracts second operand from the first. | A − B = -10 |

* | Multiplies both operands. | A * B = 200 |

/ | Divides numerator by de-numerator. | B / A = 2 |

% | Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division. | B % A = 0 |

++ | Increment operator increases the integer value by one. | A++ = 11 |

— | Decrement operator decreases the integer value by one. | A– = 9 |

## Example

Try the following example to understand all the arithmetic operators available in C.

#include <stdio.h> main() { int a = 21; int b = 10; int c ; c = a + b; printf("Line 1 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a - b; printf("Line 2 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a * b; printf("Line 3 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a / b; printf("Line 4 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a % b; printf("Line 5 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a++; printf("Line 6 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a--; printf("Line 7 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); }

When you compile and execute the above program, it produces the following result.

Line 1 - Value of c is 31 Line 2 - Value of c is 11 Line 3 - Value of c is 210 Line 4 - Value of c is 2 Line 5 - Value of c is 1 Line 6 - Value of c is 21 Line 7 - Value of c is 22

## Relational Operators

The following table shows all the relational operators supported by C. Assume variable **A** holds 10 and variable **B** holds 20 then −

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

== | Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If yes, then the condition becomes true. | (A == B) is not true. |

!= | Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If the values are not equal, then the condition becomes true. | (A != B) is true. |

> | Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. | (A > B) is not true. |

< | Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. | (A < B) is true. |

>= | Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. | (A >= B) is not true. |

<= | Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. | (A <= B) is true. |

## Example

Try the following example to understand all the relational operators available in C.

#include <stdio.h> main() { int a = 21; int b = 10; int c ; if( a == b ) { printf("Line 1 - a is equal to b\n" ); } else { printf("Line 1 - a is not equal to b\n" ); } if ( a < b ) { printf("Line 2 - a is less than b\n" ); } else { printf("Line 2 - a is not less than b\n" ); } if ( a > b ) { printf("Line 3 - a is greater than b\n" ); } else { printf("Line 3 - a is not greater than b\n" ); } /* Lets change value of a and b */ a = 5; b = 20; if ( a <= b ) { printf("Line 4 - a is either less than or equal to b\n" ); } if ( b >= a ) { printf("Line 5 - b is either greater than or equal to b\n" ); } }

When you compile and execute the above program, it produces the following result.

Line 1 - a is not equal to b Line 2 - a is not less than b Line 3 - a is greater than b Line 4 - a is either less than or equal to b Line 5 - b is either greater than or equal to b

## Logical Operators

Following table shows all the logical operators supported by C language. Assume variable **A** holds 1 and variable **B** holds 0, then −

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

&& | Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true. | (A && B) is false. |

|| | Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then the condition becomes true. | (A || B) is true. |

! | Called Logical NOT Operator. It is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make it false. | !(A && B) is true. |

## Example

Try the following example to understand all the logical operators available in C.

#include <stdio.h> main() { int a = 5; int b = 20; int c ; if ( a && b ) { printf("Line 1 - Condition is true\n" ); } if ( a || b ) { printf("Line 2 - Condition is true\n" ); } /* lets change the value of a and b */ a = 0; b = 10; if ( a && b ) { printf("Line 3 - Condition is true\n" ); } else { printf("Line 3 - Condition is not true\n" ); } if ( !(a && b) ) { printf("Line 4 - Condition is true\n" ); } }

When you compile and execute the above program, it produces the following result −

Line 1 - Condition is true Line 2 - Condition is true Line 3 - Condition is not true Line 4 - Condition is true

## Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit-by-bit operation. The truth tables for &, |, and ^ is as follows −

p | q | p & q | p | q | p ^ q |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

Assume A = 60 and B = 13 in binary format, they will be as follows −

A = 0011 1100

B = 0000 1101

—————–

A&B = 0000 1100

A|B = 0011 1101

A^B = 0011 0001

~A = 1100 0011

The following table lists the bitwise operators supported by C. Assume variable ‘A’ holds 60 and variable ‘B’ holds 13, then −

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

& | Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. | (A & B) = 12, i.e., 0000 1100 |

| | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. | (A | B) = 61, i.e., 0011 1101 |

^ | Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. | (A ^ B) = 49, i.e., 0011 0001 |

~ | Binary One’s Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of ‘flipping’ bits. | (~A ) = ~(60), i.e,. -0111101 |

<< | Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | A << 2 = 240 i.e., 1111 0000 |

>> | Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | A >> 2 = 15 i.e., 0000 1111 |

## Example

Try the following example to understand all the bitwise operators available in C.

#include <stdio.h> main() { unsigned int a = 60; /* 60 = 0011 1100 */ unsigned int b = 13; /* 13 = 0000 1101 */ int c = 0; c = a & b; /* 12 = 0000 1100 */ printf("Line 1 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a | b; /* 61 = 0011 1101 */ printf("Line 2 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a ^ b; /* 49 = 0011 0001 */ printf("Line 3 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = ~a; /*-61 = 1100 0011 */ printf("Line 4 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a << 2; /* 240 = 1111 0000 */ printf("Line 5 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a >> 2; /* 15 = 0000 1111 */ printf("Line 6 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); }

When you compile and execute the above program, it produces the following result.

Line 1 - Value of c is 12 Line 2 - Value of c is 61 Line 3 - Value of c is 49 Line 4 - Value of c is -61 Line 5 - Value of c is 240 Line 6 - Value of c is 15

## Assignment Operators

The following table lists the assignment operators supported by the C language.

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

= | Simple assignment operator. Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand | C = A + B will assign the value of A + B to C |

+= | Add AND assignment operator. It adds the right operand to the left operand and assign the result to the left operand. | C += A is equivalent to C = C + A |

-= | Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. | C -= A is equivalent to C = C – A |

*= | Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies the right operand with the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. | C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A |

/= | Divide AND assignment operator. It divides the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. | C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A |

%= | Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to the left operand. | C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A |

<<= | Left shift AND assignment operator. | C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2 |

>>= | Right shift AND assignment operator. | C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2 |

&= | Bitwise AND assignment operator. | C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2 |

^= | Bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator. | C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2 |

|= | Bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator. | C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2 |

## Example

Try the following example to understand all the assignment operators available in C.

#include <stdio.h> main() { int a = 21; int c ; c = a; printf("Line 1 - = Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c += a; printf("Line 2 - += Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c -= a; printf("Line 3 - -= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c *= a; printf("Line 4 - *= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c /= a; printf("Line 5 - /= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c = 200; c %= a; printf("Line 6 - %= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c <<= 2; printf("Line 7 - <<= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c >>= 2; printf("Line 8 - >>= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c &= 2; printf("Line 9 - &= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c ^= 2; printf("Line 10 - ^= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c |= 2; printf("Line 11 - |= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); }

When you compile and execute the above program, it produces the following result.

Line 1 - = Operator Example, Value of c = 21 Line 2 - += Operator Example, Value of c = 42 Line 3 - -= Operator Example, Value of c = 21 Line 4 - *= Operator Example, Value of c = 441 Line 5 - /= Operator Example, Value of c = 21 Line 6 - %= Operator Example, Value of c = 11 Line 7 - <<= Operator Example, Value of c = 44 Line 8 - >>= Operator Example, Value of c = 11 Line 9 - &= Operator Example, Value of c = 2 Line 10 - ^= Operator Example, Value of c = 0 Line 11 - |= Operator Example, Value of c = 2

## Misc Operators ↦ sizeof & ternary

Besides the operators discussed above, there are a few other important operators including **sizeof** and **? :** supported by the C Language.

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

sizeof() | Returns the size of a variable. | sizeof(a), where a is integer, will return 4. |

& | Returns the address of a variable. | &a; returns the actual address of the variable. |

* | Pointer to a variable. | *a; |

? : | Conditional Expression. | If Condition is true ? then value X : otherwise value Y |

## Example

Try following example to understand all the miscellaneous operators available in C.

#include <stdio.h> main() { int a = 4; short b; double c; int* ptr; /* example of sizeof operator */ printf("Line 1 - Size of variable a = %d\n", sizeof(a) ); printf("Line 2 - Size of variable b = %d\n", sizeof(b) ); printf("Line 3 - Size of variable c= %d\n", sizeof(c) ); /* example of & and * operators */ ptr = &a; /* 'ptr' now contains the address of 'a'*/ printf("value of a is %d\n", a); printf("*ptr is %d.\n", *ptr); /* example of ternary operator */ a = 10; b = (a == 1) ? 20: 30; printf( "Value of b is %d\n", b ); b = (a == 10) ? 20: 30; printf( "Value of b is %d\n", b ); }

When you compile and execute the above program, it produces the following result.

Line 1 - Size of variable a = 4 Line 2 - Size of variable b = 2 Line 3 - Size of variable c= 8 value of a is 4 *ptr is 4. Value of b is 30 Value of b is 20

## Operators Precedence in C

Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression and decides how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has a higher precedence than the addition operator.

For example, x = 7 + 3 * 2; here, x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has a higher precedence than +, so it first gets multiplied with 3*2 and then adds into 7.

Here, operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedence operators will be evaluated first.

Category | Operator | Associativity |
---|---|---|

Postfix | () [] -> . ++ – – | Left to right |

Unary | + – ! ~ ++ – – (type)* & sizeof | Right to left |

Multiplicative | * / % | Left to right |

Additive | + – | Left to right |

Shift | << >> | Left to right |

Relational | < <= > >= | Left to right |

Equality | == != | Left to right |

Bitwise AND | & | Left to right |

Bitwise XOR | ^ | Left to right |

Bitwise OR | | | Left to right |

Logical AND | && | Left to right |

Logical OR | || | Left to right |

Conditional | ?: | Right to left |

Assignment | = += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |= | Right to left |

Comma | , | Left to right |

## Example

Try the following example to understand operator precedence in C.

#include <stdio.h> main() { int a = 20; int b = 10; int c = 15; int d = 5; int e; e = (a + b) * c / d; // ( 30 * 15 ) / 5 printf("Value of (a + b) * c / d is : %d\n", e ); e = ((a + b) * c) / d; // (30 * 15 ) / 5 printf("Value of ((a + b) * c) / d is : %d\n" , e ); e = (a + b) * (c / d); // (30) * (15/5) printf("Value of (a + b) * (c / d) is : %d\n", e ); e = a + (b * c) / d; // 20 + (150/5) printf("Value of a + (b * c) / d is : %d\n" , e ); return 0; }

When you compile and execute the above program, it produces the following result.

Value of (a + b) * c / d is : 90 Value of ((a + b) * c) / d is : 90 Value of (a + b) * (c / d) is : 90 Value of a + (b * c) / d is : 50

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