Biologists, too, have used AI—in the form of ‘artiﬁcial life’ (A-Life), which develops computer models of diﬀering aspects of living organisms. This helps them to explain various types of animal behaviour, the development of bodily form, biological evolution, and the nature of life itself. Besides aﬀecting the life sciences, AI has inﬂuenced philosophy. Many philosophers today base their accounts of mind on AI concepts. They use these to address, for instance, the notorious mind–body problem, the conundrum of free will, and the many puzzles regarding consciousness. However, these philosophical ideas are hugely controversial. And there are deep disagreements about whether any AI system could possess real intelligence, creativity, or life. Last, but not least, AI has challenged the ways in which we think about humanity—and its future. Indeed, some people worry about whether we actually have a future, because they foresee AI surpassing human intelligence across the board. Although a few thinkers welcome this prospect, most dread it: what place will remain, they ask, for human dignity and esponsibility?
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Python Machine Learning Second Edition - Sebastian Raschka & Vahid Mirjalili
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